Contents  on 7 October '18

Asteroid/Comet Connection (A/CC) Resources:

The latest A/CC news is available via framed access, RSS news feed RSS news feed, or redirection.

Navigation tips: Use the << and >> arrows on the menus for each regular section (Observers, Risks, etc.) to move to the previous and next day's news for that section. Use the Index menu item to access specific days through a calendar interface. To keep track of what's new each day, watch the Chronology section.

Traffic Report  on 7 October '18

Thirteen objects reported inside ten LD

There are thirteen minor objects being tracked within ten lunar distances (LD) of Earth today. Nearest is newly announced risk-listed intruder 2018 TV, which enters the Earth-Moon system from 1.75 LD, passed our planet at 0.74 LD at 2004 LD and moves out to 0.80 LD. Next closest is 2018 TE2, which enters Earth's sphere of gravitational influence, moving in from 4.55 to 1.84 LD.

Neighborhood Traffic - sorted by Earth passage distance, grouped by 1.0, 2.41, 5.0 & 10.0 LD boundaries
Earth passage I D ~Size Distance today  Inside ten LD Notes
0.23 LD Sept. 25 2018 SD2 6 m  7.93 to 8.59 LD Sept. 10 - Oct. 10 intruder, NHATS target, risk
0.74 LD today 2018 TV 6 m  0.74 LD Oct. 2 - 13 NEW, intruder today, NHATS target, Earth
closest at 2004 UTC, risk - MPEC, DOU
0.79 LD Sept. 30 2018 TC 15 m  7.94 to 9.21 LD Sept. 23 - tomorrow intruder, NHATS target - DOU
1.27 LD tomorrow 2018 TE2 7 m  1.84 from 4.55 LD Oct. 5 - 11 NEW, enters Earth SOI - MPEC
1.66 LD Oct. 5 2018 TZ 15 m  4.40 to 7.20 LD Oct. 2 - 8 NEW - MPEC
2.03 LD Oct. 5 2018 TU 11 m  3.49 to 5.83 LD Oct. 2 - 9
4.06 LD Sept. 24 2018 RQ1 51 m  9.14 to 9.75 LD Sept. 11 - tomorrow NHATS target - DOU
4.30 LD yesterday 2018 TW1 10 m  4.45 to 5.21 LD Oct. 1 - 11 NEW - MPEC
5.39 LD Oct. 2 2018 SD3 9 m  9.43 to 10.88 LD Sept. 27 - today NHATS target, exits ten LD
6.18 LD Oct. 4 2018 SC3 20 m  7.74 to 8.95 LD Sept. 30 - tomorrow DOU
6.70 LD tomorrow 2018 SG3 13 m  6.70 from 6.84 LD Oct. 2 - 13 NHATS target - DOU
7.46 LD today 2018 TF2 17 m  7.46 LD Oct. 5 - 10 NEW, Earth MPEC
8.12 LD tomorrow 2018 TY1 19 m  8.12 from 8.49 LD Oct. 5 - 10 NEW - MPEC

This report was generated at 1942 UTC with the discoveries of eight close passers, including risk-listed intruder 2018 TV (MPEC, DOU). Only one of these is not in the active traffic tables (above and below). Already departed 2018 TB2 (MPEC) flew by us at 5.03 LD on September 30th. Today's DOU MPEC has follow-up for four active-traffic objects and five departed objects: 2018 SS1, 2018 RT5, 2017 SL16, and including risk-listed objects 2018 TR and 2018 TB.

Approaching - sorted by 10-LD bubble entry date
Earth passage I D ~Size Distance today  Inside ten LD Notes
6.6   LD Oct. 15* 2018 TS1 22 m  19.9 from 22.3 LD Oct. 12 - 18 NEW, EPU +/- 9 mins.* - MPEC
3.1   LD Oct. 17* 2014 US7 18 m  19.1 from 21.0 LD Oct. 12 - 22 EPU +/- 3.10 hours*, NHATS target
9.02 LD Oct. 15 2018 SL3 32 m  24.76 from 27.65 LD Oct. 14 - 17
8.7   LD Oct. 18* 2016 GC221 37 m  35.5 from 38.7 LD Oct. 17 - 20 EPU +/- 6.07 hours*
7.51 LD Oct. 29 475534 2006 TS7 195 m  89.37 from 93.65 LD Oct. 27 - 31
* EPU = Earth passage uncertainty



Notes: Ten times the distance to the Moon (ten LD) has no astronomical importance but is a useful boundary for reporting about transient natural objects that approach our planet's gravitational sphere of influence (SOI), which has a radius of about 2.41 LD from Earth's center. This puts a focus on some of the most important and very best NEO observation work, representative of the much larger NEO discovery and tracking effort. Object temporal distances are derived by A/CC from JPL Horizons data. See also current sky chart and object details (alt-details), ephemerides, and today's timeline.

NEOCP Activity  on 7 October '18

The MPC's NEO Confirmation Page has 81 listings

When last checked at 2358 UTC today, the Minor Planet Center's Near Earth Object discovery Confirmation Page (NEOCP) had 81 objects listed. Of these, 31 were "one nighters." So far The Tracking News has counted a total of 122 listings on the NEOCP today.

To learn how observers use the NEOCP, see the Practical guide on how to observe NEOCP object at Suno Observatory by Birtwhistle et al.

New MPECs  on 7 October '18

Minor Planet Electronic Circulars

As of last check at 2358 UTC, there have been 26 MPECs posted today from the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


MPEC 2018-T91 - "16:10 UT" - 2018 TF2


MPEC 2018-T90 - "16:06 UT" - 2018 TD2


MPEC 2018-T89 - "16:02 UT" - 2018 TC2


MPEC 2018-T88 - "15:59 UT" - 2018 TE2


MPEC 2018-T87 - "15:55 UT" - 2018 TB2


MPEC 2018-T86 - "15:51 UT" - 2018 TA2


MPEC 2018-T85 - "15:39 UT" - 2018 TW1


MPEC 2018-T84 - "15:36 UT" - 2018 TZ1


MPEC 2018-T83 - "15:32 UT" - 2018 TY1


MPEC 2018-T82 - "15:28 UT" - 2018 TX1


MPEC 2018-T81 - "15:23 UT" - 2018 TV1


MPEC 2018-T80 - "15:19 UT" - 2018 TU1


MPEC 2018-T79 - "15:14 UT" - 2018 SV3


MPEC 2018-T78 - "15:05 UT" - 2018 TT1


MPEC 2018-T77 - "15:00 UT" - 2018 TS1


MPEC 2018-T76 - "14:56 UT" - 2018 TR1


MPEC 2018-T75 - "14:52 UT" - 2018 TQ1


MPEC 2018-T74 - "14:48 UT" - 2018 TP1


MPEC 2018-T73 - "14:43 UT" - 2018 TO1


MPEC 2018-T72 - "14:38 UT" - 2018 TN1


<< DOU on 7 Oct. '18 >>  MPEC 2018-T71 - "12:04 UT" - Daily Orbit Update


MPEC 2018-T70 - "03:59 UT" - 2018 TZ


MPEC 2018-T69 - "03:56 UT" - 2018 TV


MPEC 2018-T68 - "03:52 UT" - 2018 TY


MPEC 2018-T67 - "03:48 UT" - 2018 TX


MPEC 2018-T66 - "03:43 UT" - 2018 TW

Observers  on 7 October '18

A total of 42 observers appear in today's MPECs.

CodeObserver / observatory
H21Astronomical Research Obs. Westfield in Illinois, 13 in MPECs 2018-T67, 2018-T68, 2018-T69, 2018-T71, 2018-T81, 2018-T82 & 2018-T86 -- 2018 TY, 2018 TX1, 2018 TX, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TA2, 2018 RT7, 2018 RT5, 2018 RA5, 2018 PS24, 2018 PM22, 2018 OK, 142555
T05ATLAS Haleakala in Hawaii, 3 in MPECs 2018-T71 & 2018-T73 -- 2018 TO1, 2018 SK3, 4953
T08ATLAS Mauna Loa in Hawaii, 27 in MPECs 2018-T71 & 2018-T78 -- 2018 TT1, 2018 TP, 2018 TB, 2018 RS1, 2018 NB, 2016 TZ56, 2011 UA, 65733, 523788, 523631, 523604, 523596, 518635, 481542, 457260, 446924, 443923, 438429, 414960, 20790, 163818, 155340, 6456, 5797, 5143, 3691, 1865
C77Bernezzo Obs. in Italy, 1 in MPEC 2018-T69 -- 2018 TV
160Castelmartini Obs. in Italy, 11 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 86324, 53789, 523619, 518635, 455594, 438429, 418929, 414960, 17274, 105140, 1865
703Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) in Arizona, 44 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T70, 2018-T71, 2018-T73, 2018-T76, 2018-T81, 2018-T82, 2018-T83, 2018-T84, 2018-T85 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TZ1, 2018 TZ, 2018 TY1, 2018 TX1, 2018 TW1, 2018 TW, 2018 TV1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TO1, 2018 TF2, 2018 SN, 2018 RL2, 2018 QP, 2018 PE22, 2018 LZ5, 2015 VW1, 2014 TG17, 2014 SK260, 2005 WF57, 2001 RQ17, 1999 RV2, 439313, 427643, 422977, 375505, 366470, 358744, 350988, 337252, 31345, 288914, 267729, 256412, 253062, 250697, 18109, 17511, 154300, 140333, 13553, 9856, 5751, 5653, 4401
807|Robert Holmes in Illinois via Cerro Tololo Inter-American Obs. (CTIO) in Chile, 9 in MPECs 2018-T71 & 2018-T72 -- 2018 TN1, 2018 SS1, 2018 RZ7, 2018 RV1, 2018 RU7, 2018 RT1, 2018 PK21, 2018 KT, 2017 SL16
850Cordell-Lorenz Obs. in Tennessee, 4 in MPECs 2018-T73, 2018-T78, 2018-T82 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TX1, 2018 TT1, 2018 TO1, 2018 TF2
106Crni Vrh Obs. in Slovenia, 1 in MPEC 2018-T73 -- 2018 TO1
113Drebach Obs. in Germany, 2 in MPECs 2018-T83 & 2018-T85 -- 2018 TY1, 2018 TW1
I19El Gato Gris Obs. in Argentina, 2 in MPECs 2018-T70 & 2018-T78 -- 2018 TZ, 2018 TT1
E10*program code "*" (19) via Faulkes Telescope South in New South Wales, 1 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 2018 RQ1
X31Galilei Obs., 1 in MPEC 2018-T70 -- 2018 TZ
K88GINOP-KHK in Hungary, 16 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T68, 2018-T69, 2018-T73, 2018-T74, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77, 2018-T78, 2018-T81, 2018-T82, 2018-T83, 2018-T84, 2018-T85, 2018-T87 & 2018-T89 -- 2018 TZ1, 2018 TY1, 2018 TY, 2018 TX1, 2018 TW1, 2018 TW, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TT1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TP1, 2018 TO1, 2018 TC2, 2018 TB2
J95Great Shefford Obs. in England, 10 in MPECs 2018-T69, 2018-T76, 2018-T81, 2018-T83, 2018-T85, 2018-T86, 2018-T88, 2018-T89, 2018-T90 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TY1, 2018 TW1, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TR1, 2018 TF2, 2018 TE2, 2018 TD2, 2018 TC2, 2018 TA2
A17Guidestar Obs. in Germany, 3 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T82 & 2018-T85 -- 2018 TX1, 2018 TW1, 2018 TW
Q62(P.S. Lau in Hong Kong via iTelescope Obs. Siding Spring in New South Wales, 1 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 68359
246KLENOT in the Czech Republic, 8 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T69, 2018-T73, 2018-T75, 2018-T81, 2018-T82, 2018-T83 & 2018-T85 -- 2018 TY1, 2018 TX1, 2018 TW1, 2018 TW, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TO1
Z43Landehen Obs., 4 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 2018 TP, 2018 RP8, 2018 PE22, 162168
K30Luscherz Obs. in Switzerland, 1 in MPEC 2018-T69 -- 2018 TV
H01Magdalena Ridge Obs. (MRO) in New Mexico, 10 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T67, 2018-T70, 2018-T79, 2018-T81, 2018-T83, 2018-T84, 2018-T85, 2018-T88 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TZ1, 2018 TZ, 2018 TY1, 2018 TX, 2018 TW1, 2018 TW, 2018 TV1, 2018 TF2, 2018 TE2, 2018 SV3
C41MASTER-II Kislovodsk in Russia, 1 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 442742
K95MASTER-II Sutherland in South Africa, 1 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 5751
711McDonald Obs. in Texas, 11 in MPECs 2018-T73, 2018-T74, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77, 2018-T78, 2018-T80, 2018-T82, 2018-T83, 2018-T84 & 2018-T88 -- 2018 TZ1, 2018 TY1, 2018 TX1, 2018 TU1, 2018 TT1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TP1, 2018 TO1, 2018 TE2
474Mt. John Obs. in New Zealand, 10 in MPECs 2018-T70, 2018-T71, 2018-T72 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TZ, 2018 TR, 2018 TP, 2018 TN1, 2018 TF2, 2018 SM3, 2018 SG3, 2018 SC3, 2018 SA1, 2018 RU7
G96Mt. Lemmon Survey (MLS) in Arizona, 52 in MPECs 2018-T67, 2018-T68, 2018-T69, 2018-T70, 2018-T71, 2018-T77, 2018-T79, 2018-T81, 2018-T82, 2018-T83, 2018-T86, 2018-T87, 2018-T88, 2018-T89, 2018-T90 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TZ, 2018 TY1, 2018 TY, 2018 TX1, 2018 TX, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TS1, 2018 TF2, 2018 TE2, 2018 TD2, 2018 TC2, 2018 TC, 2018 TB2, 2018 TA2, 2018 SV3, 2018 SQ3, 2018 RR8, 2018 RO7, 2018 RM2, 2018 RL2, 2018 RD7, 2018 RC8, 2018 QP, 2018 PS7, 2018 PK22, 2018 PE22, 2018 LZ5, 2018 KR2, 2001 SC170, 2001 RQ17, 523628, 523626, 478574, 474706, 443923, 306595, 256412, 253841, 253062, 250697, 243566, 226198, 216985, 18109, 162168, 144922, 140039, 137044, 13553, 106589, 1221
Z80Northolt Branch Obs. in England, 1 in MPEC 2018-T69 -- 2018 TV
I41Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) in southern California, 8 in MPECs 2018-T70 & 2018-T71 -- 2018 TZ, 65706, 523610, 503960, 468481, 455550, 454177, 9058
F52Pan-STARRS 2 (PS2) in Hawaii, 13 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T67, 2018-T68, 2018-T71, 2018-T72, 2018-T74, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77, 2018-T80, 2018-T82 & 2018-T87 -- 2018 TY, 2018 TX1, 2018 TX, 2018 TW, 2018 TU1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TP1, 2018 TN1, 2018 TB2, 513358, 419022
K63Pascoli Obs. in Italy, 2 in MPECs 2018-T76 & 2018-T77 -- 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1
L04ROASTERR-1 in Romania, 2 in MPECs 2018-T69 & 2018-T83 -- 2018 TY1, 2018 TV
B74Santa Maria de Montmagastrell Obs. in Spain, 1 in MPEC 2018-T81 -- 2018 TV1
C95SATINO-1 in France, 1 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 138847
204Schiaparelli Obs. in Italy, 12 in MPECs 2018-T71, 2018-T73, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77, 2018-T78, 2018-T81, 2018-T82, 2018-T83, 2018-T85, 2018-T86 & 2018-T91 -- 2018 TY1, 2018 TX1, 2018 TW1, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TT1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TO1, 2018 TF2, 2018 TA2
W885M. Kumrucu-Lohmiller in Massachusetts via Slooh.com Chile Obs. in Chile, 1 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 4401
587Sormano Obs. in Italy, 1 in MPEC 2018-T73 -- 2018 TO1
691Spacewatch 0.9m telescope in Arizona, 8 in MPECs 2018-T71, 2018-T72, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77, 2018-T78 & 2018-T80 -- 2018 TU1, 2018 TT1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TN1, 2018 RV5, 5653
291Spacewatch 1.8m telescope in Arizona, 3 in MPECs 2018-T74, 2018-T80 & 2018-T87 -- 2018 TU1, 2018 TP1, 2018 TB2
I52Steward Obs. Mt. Lemmon Station in Arizona, 20 in MPECs 2018-T66, 2018-T67, 2018-T68, 2018-T69, 2018-T73, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77, 2018-T78, 2018-T79, 2018-T81, 2018-T82, 2018-T83, 2018-T84, 2018-T85, 2018-T86, 2018-T87, 2018-T88, 2018-T89 & 2018-T90 -- 2018 TZ1, 2018 TY1, 2018 TY, 2018 TX1, 2018 TX, 2018 TW1, 2018 TW, 2018 TV1, 2018 TV, 2018 TT1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TO1, 2018 TE2, 2018 TD2, 2018 TC2, 2018 TB2, 2018 TA2, 2018 SV3
T12UH/Tholen NEO Follow-Up 2.24m Telescope in Hawaii, 4 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 2018 SX2, 2018 RS7, 2018 RP8, 2018 LW5
L01Visnjan Obs., 6 in MPECs 2018-T73, 2018-T74, 2018-T75, 2018-T76, 2018-T77 & 2018-T80 -- 2018 TU1, 2018 TS1, 2018 TR1, 2018 TQ1, 2018 TP1, 2018 TO1
G33Wickede Obs. in Germany, 2 in MPEC 2018-T71 -- 418929, 18109
For a list of all participating observatories that have Web addresses, see A/CC's Observatory Links page.

Impact Risk Monitoring  on 7 October '18

Summary Risk Table for Risk Assessments Updated Today   (last checks: NEODyS at 2358 UTC)
See the CRT page for a list of all objects rated recently as risks and our ephemerides page for a list of risk-listed objects under current observation.
The time horizon for JPL is 100 years from today and for NEODyS is usually the year 2090. Both also post impact solutions beyond 100 years for a few special objects.
For the latest official risk assessments, and for explanations of the terminology, see the NASA/JPL Sentry and NEODyS CLOMON2 risk pages.
0000NNN000

Object

Risk
Monitor
When
Noted
UTC
0000T0000
Year
Range

VI
#
000NN00
Prob
Cum
T0000
PS
Cum
T0000
PS
Max

T
S


Notes for Today's Latest Risk Assessments
2018 TB2JPL Sentry17052095-209514.787e-08-8.34-8.340JPL: Computed at 09:57 today Pacific time based on 18 observations spanning 2.9485 days (2018-Oct-03.397251 to 2018-Oct-06.34579). Diameter approximately 0.015 km. from weighted mean H=26.84.
2018 TVNEODyS19312037-205459.56e-08-8.45-8.470NEODyS: "Based on 47 optical observations (of which 0 are rejected as outliers) from 2018-10-05.164 to 2018-10-07.012."
JPL Sentry16102037-203922.674e-08-8.99-9.010JPL: Computed at 07:31 today Pacific time based on 47 observations spanning 1.8479 days (2018-Oct-05.16315 to 2018-Oct-07.011059). Diameter approximately 0.006 km. from weighted mean H=28.59.
2018 TRJPL Sentry16102103-2117165.607333e-06-5.77-6.390JPL: Computed at 07:39 today Pacific time based on 31 observations spanning 4.0785 days (2018-Oct-02.30976 to 2018-Oct-06.3883). Diameter approximately 0.031 km. from weighted mean H=25.22.
2018 TBNEODyS19312095-210637.01e-07-6.42-6.490NEODyS: "Based on 135 optical observations (of which 1 are rejected as outliers) from 2018-10-02.423 to 2018-10-06.586."
JPL Sentry16102095-210327.3161e-07-6.40-6.430JPL: Computed at 07:29 today Pacific time based on 134 observations spanning 4.1631 days (2018-Oct-02.42196 to 2018-Oct-06.58511). Diameter approximately 0.036 km. from weighted mean H=24.89.
2018 SK3NEODyS1931R E M O V E D-
2018 RQ1NEODyS1931R E M O V E D-

Legend: VI# = VI count, Prob Cum = cumulative probability, PS Cum/Max = cumulative/maximum Palermo Scale, TS = Torino Scale (next 100 years)

An impact solution, also known as a "virtual impactor" (VI), is not a prediction but rather a possibility derived from a variant orbit calculation that cannot be eliminated yet based on the existing data. Elimination can come quickly with just a little further observation or may take weeks or months, sometimes years. Once superceded or eliminated, a former impact solution has zero relevance to an object's risk. See Jon Giorgini's "Understanding Risk Pages" to learn more.

Chronology  on 7 October '18

Times are UTC for when items were noted or added by The Tracking News.

1942Updated Traffic Report
1931Noted that NEODyS has removed 2018 RQ1 as an impact risk - see above
Noted that NEODyS has removed 2018 SK3 as an impact risk - see above
Noted that NEODyS has updated its 2018 TB risk assessment - see above
Noted that NEODyS has posted 2018 TV as an impact risk - see above
1705Noted that JPL Sentry has posted 2018 TB2 as an impact risk - see above
1640Grabbed MPEC 2018-T91 - 2018 TF2 - see above
1610Noted that JPL Sentry has updated its 2018 TB risk assessment - see above
Noted that JPL Sentry has updated its 2018 TR risk assessment - see above
Noted that JPL Sentry has posted 2018 TV as an impact risk - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T71 - Daily Orbit Update - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T72 - 2018 TN1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T73 - 2018 TO1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T74 - 2018 TP1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T75 - 2018 TQ1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T76 - 2018 TR1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T77 - 2018 TS1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T78 - 2018 TT1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T79 - 2018 SV3 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T80 - 2018 TU1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T81 - 2018 TV1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T82 - 2018 TX1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T83 - 2018 TY1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T84 - 2018 TZ1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T85 - 2018 TW1 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T86 - 2018 TA2 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T87 - 2018 TB2 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T88 - 2018 TE2 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T89 - 2018 TC2 - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T90 - 2018 TD2 - see above
0430Grabbed MPEC 2018-T70 - 2018 TZ - see above
0400Grabbed MPEC 2018-T66 - 2018 TW - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T67 - 2018 TX - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T68 - 2018 TY - see above
Grabbed MPEC 2018-T69 - 2018 TV - see above